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MLA citation guide

We assembled this citations guide for the purpose of helping students better understand the MLA citation style. This guide is created with the color legend to clearly show the readers how to references a particular source. All the sources were arranged in groups and highlighted for easy reading and use.

Note: While the style of reference in the examples below is MLA, the sources and authors might be imaginary or non-existent.


General rule: "Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication."

One book-one author

Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. New York: Putnam, 1955.

One book-several authors

Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994.

Two (or more) books by the same author

Scott, Susan. Exploring Hanauma Bay. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1993.
---. Plants and Animals of Hawaii. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1991.

Corporate author

Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1973.

Translated book

Hitler, Adolph. Mein Kampf. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Republished book (Juse use the correct year)

Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. New York: Putnam, 2005.

Work done by the editor

Kreider, Jan F., ed. Handbook of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Boca Raton: CRC, 1993.

Anthology or book collection

Author of Story. "Title of Story." Title of Book. Name of Editor. Edition (if given). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page numbers

Multivolume book

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Trans. H. E. Butler. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Government publication

State document: New York State. Commission on Capital Punishment. Report of the Commission to Investigate and Report the Most Humane and Practical Method of Carrying Into Effect the Sentence of Death in Capital Cases. Albany: Troy Press, 1888.

Federal document: United States. Cong. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. The Future of the Independent Counsel Act. Hearings 106th Cong., 1st sess. Washington: GPO, 1999.

International document: United Nations. General Assembly. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. New York: United Nations, 1979.


Women's Health: Leading a sexually active life with more than one partner . Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2005.


Bile, Timothy. Ecology, Feminism, and Masculine Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership in the XXI century. Diss. Michigan State University, 2005. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2006. AAT 3191701.

Journal Article

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number (Year): Page(s).

Shefter, Martin. "Institutional Conflict over Presidential Appointments: The Case of Clarence Thomas." PS: Political Science & Politics 25.4 (1992): 676-79.

Newspaper or Magazine Article

Author. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s).

Pirisi, Angela. "Eye-catching advertisements." Psychology Today Jan.-Feb. 1997: 14.

Newspaper article, no author

"Study Ties Self-Delusion To Successful Marriages." Wall Street Journal 2 Jan. 1998, late ed.: A11.

Book Article or Chapter

James, Nancy E. "Two Sides of Paradise: The Eden Myth According to Kirk and Spock." Spectrum of the Fantastic. Ed. Donald Palumbo. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988. 219-223.

Encyclopedia Article (well known reference books)

Author of Article (if given). "Article Title." Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

Sturgeon, Theodore. "Science Fiction." The Encyclopedia Americana. International ed. 1995.

Encyclopedia Article (less familiar reference books)

Horn, Maurice. "Flash Gordon." The World Encyclopedia of Comics. Ed. Maurice Horn. 2 vols. New York: Chelsea, 1976.

Gale Reference Book (and other books featuring reprinted articles)

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Name of Database. Gale Group Databases. YOUR UNIVERSITY LIBRARY.,YOUR STATE. Date of Access <>.

Shayon, Robert Lewis. "The Interplanetary Spock." Saturday Review 17 June 1967: 46. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Sharon R. Gunton. Vol. 17. Detroit: Gale Research, 1981. 403.

ERIC Document

Fuss-Reineck, Marilyn. Sibling Communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts between Brothers. Miami: Speech Communication Assn., 1993. ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED364932.


Chaplin, Heather. "Epidemic of Extravagance." Salon 19 February 1999. 12 July 1999 <>.

Newspaper or Magazine Article on the Internet

Andreadis, Athena. "The Enterprise Finds Twin Earths Everywhere It Goes, But Future Colonizers of Distant Planets Won't Be So Lucky." Astronomy Jan. 1999: 64- . Academic Universe. Lexis-Nexis. B. Davis Schwartz Memorial Lib., Brookville, NY. 7 Feb. 1999. <http://>.


Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Name of Database. EBSCOhost. YOUR UNIVERSITY LIBRARY., YOUR STATE. Date of Access <>.

Heyman, J.D., and Johnny Dodd. "New Arm, Same Spirit." People 23 Feb. 2004: 58+. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOhost. Harvard University Johnston Lib., MA. 8 May 2004 <>.

SIRS Knowledge Source

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Name of Database. SIRS Knowledge Source. Harvard University Johnston Lib., MA. Date of Access <>.

Mason, Betsy. "Season of Fire." Discover Feb. 2003: 32-39. SIRS Researcher. SIRS Knowledge Source. Harvard University Johnston Lib., MA. 8 May 2004 <>.

Literature Resource Center

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Source, edition (if given). Year. Literature Resource Center. Gale Group Databases. Harvard University Johnston Lib., MA. Date of Access <>.

Thies, Gretchen. "Rashomon: Overview." Reference Guide to Short Fiction, 1st ed. 1994. Literature Resource Center. Gale Group Databases. Harvard University Johnston Lib., MA. 8 May 2004 <>.

Audio-Visual Materials

Film or video recording:

Title. Director, Producer, and/or Writer. Medium. Distributor, Year.

Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl . Dir. Gore Verbinsky. 2003. Videocassette. Walt Disney Pictures, 2004.

Sound recording:

Madonna.American Life . Madonna REcords Studio, 2003.

Sound recording, specific song:

Madonna. "Hollywood". American Life . Madonna REcords Studio, 2003.


"How to marry a millionnaire ." Encyclopedia Judaica. CD-ROM. Vers. 1.0. Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia, 2001.

Interview Conducted by the Researcher

Person Interviewed. Type of Interview (personal, telephone, email, etc.). Date.

Marley, Bob. Personal interview. 23 July 1991.

Broadcast Interview (include information for the television or radio broadcast.)

Bush, George, Jr. Interview with Opra Winfrey. Oprah Winfrey Show. CBS. 21 July 2004.

To prepare this MLA citations page, we used the following books:

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA style manual and guide to scholarly publishing. 2nd ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.


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